Sugar beet: characteristics and rules of cultivation


Sugar beet is a popular technical culture, therefore, the technology of cultivation is known in many regions of Russia. Sugar obtained from this culture is widely used by large producers and small businesses in the sugar industry.

General characteristics

Sugar beet is a biennial root plant, and its cultivation in order to obtain sugar and animal nutrition is economically viable. Some areas of our country allocate significant cultivated areas for crop cultivation.

The description and characterization of sugar beets involves the formation of a rosette of basal leaves in the first year of cultivation, as well as the formation of a rather fleshy root with a high content of sucrose. The use of high-quality seeds and agricultural technology allows you to get a high yield. The quantity and qualitative characteristics of root crops directly depend on the soil and climatic conditions in the cultivation region, and on how well the requirements of agricultural technology are observed. The basic sugar content of the crop depends on how many sunny days fall in the period from August to October.

The economic efficiency of beet farming is based on the main indicators represented by sugar beet productivity, labor intensity, cost, and also the profitability of the production process. About half of the gross yield of sugar beets in our country accounts for the territory of the West Siberian region. Collection in Russia and on the territory of Bashkiria is carried out late in the fall. The average yield in our country is about 17.8 tons per hectare.

Sugar Beet: Cultivation

The technology of sugar from root crops

The production of sugar from sugar beets includes the following sequentially carried out operations:

  • transportation of the crop to the place of production and cleaning of impurities;
  • supply of root crops by means of a hydraulic conveyor with partial washing;
  • final washing of beets in special washing plants;
  • electromagnetic cleaning of clean beets and subsequent weighing;
  • particle cutting of root crops;
  • diffusion juice extraction with subsequent purification;
  • two-stage processing of beet juice with lime;
  • processing beetroot juice with saturation gas in order to reduce the content of soluble calcium salts;
  • filtration and sulfitation of juice;
  • thickening of juice.

At the final stage, the purified beet syrup is boiled until massecuite, containing about 55% of crystallized sugars. The final product is granulated sugar, which has a temperature of 55-60 ° C and is processed in a drying and cooling plant.

Varieties, rules for processing and planting seeds

The diploid hybrid forms “Elixir”, “Typhoon”, “Jenny”, “Molly”, “Flamingo”, “Caucasus” and “Imperial”, as well as a special hybrid of the type “NE Angus” and “Protes” are especially in demand. Before planting, be sure to do the seed treatment and prepare the field, removing weeds and deep digging the soil. Seeds, before sowing, you need to prepare:

  • rough cleaning of impurities;
  • grinding of seed material;
  • evaluate the color and size of the seeds by calibrating;
  • pelleting with nutrients in the form of a mixture based on humus and molasses. To process a kilogram of seeds, a couple of kilograms of humus, 0.3 kg of molasses and 0.7 l of water is enough;
  • daily soaking of seeds in water at room temperature.

Sowing in the conditions of home gardening is done manually. When sowing on a production scale, special seeders or other equipment for sowing should be involved.

Soil preparation and crop rotation

For sowing beets, it is recommended to use organic fertilizers in the form of manure or compostsupplemented with mineral complexes. Podzolic soils and acidic soils require lime. A good result will allow to ensure full NPK fertilizer applied for winter tillage. Simple and double superphosphate, as well as precipitate and phosphate slag have high efficiency. Leached chernozems, podzolized loams and gray forest soils, it is desirable to improve the introduction of phosphate rock.

As nitrogen-containing fertilizers, it is preferable to use sodium nitrate in addition to phosphorus-potassium fertilizers for deep chill. On chernozem, you can use urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate. When using intensive technology, it is considered economically feasible to use complex fertilizers in the form of nitrofoski, nitroammofoski, carboammofoski and ammophos. On all types of soil, maximum beet yield is ensured by the introduction of full mineral fertilizer.

Sugar Beet Harvest

The general rules for beet rotation are as follows: sowing black, busy, green manure crops - growing winter crops - sowing sugar beets - cultivating spring crops.

Care Rules

Care includes a ball or shallow loosening of the soil, bunching or thinning of sugar beet plantings, longitudinal and transverse treatments, regular watering and top dressing.

Top dressing

A very important event is the introduction of fertilizers in the form of phosphorus-potassium fertilizing with the addition of nitrogen. It is important to remember that excessive application of nitrogen can negatively affect the quality of the crop, since there is an accumulation of nitrates in the plant.

Feeding TimesFertilizerApplication Rules
After the formation of a pair of real leaves.Urea or sodium nitrate. A solution of boric acid, diluted at the rate of 2-3 kg / haConducting liquid root dressing
At the stage of formation of ten to twelve leaves.Any liquid microfertilizer with boron in organomineral and manganese in chelate form with the addition of urea at the rate of 1 kg per 20 l of working solutionConducting liquid root dressing
The last decade of JuneSodium dressing of the culture with table salt diluted at the rate of 60 g per 10 l of warm waterSalt solution infused with herbal fertilizer
AugustWood ashRoot top dressing with wood ash
During the period of active vegetationTop dressing by "Adob-Bor", "Ekolist-Bor" or "Solyubor"Foliar top dressing on leaves in cloudy but dry weather

Watering

The need for irrigation measures, as well as the time and rate of irrigation, should be determined by weather conditions and soil moisture indicators. Sugar beet crops can respond painfully to both insufficient and excessive soil moisture. Long breaks between watering stimulate the formation of new root hairs and foliage, which helps to reduce sugar content and other quality indicators of root crops. About three weeks before harvesting, watering should be stopped.

Protection against diseases and pests

In addition to preventive measures, a month before sowing to protect seedlings and seedlings, seed is treated with insecticidal preparations such as 35% Furadan or wettable Gaucho powder at a rate of 20 kg per ton.

After the emergence of seedlings, the crops are treated with 10% Fastakom, Karate or Bi-58 new. A good result is the processing of plantings before the tops are closed in rows of 60% with Diazinon, 40% with Diazol, 40% with Dursban or 40% with Pirineks.

Harvest dates and features

Sugar beets should be stored without washing. If the crop is correctly harvested, and the root crops are not damaged, then the crop can be stored without loss throughout the winter, and sometimes spring.

In September or October, immediately before harvesting, it is recommended to shed the soil on ridges abundantly with warm water.

How beet sugar is made

Root crops storage

Sugar beets are well stored in cellars and cellars, with optimal temperature values ​​of + 2ºC and humidity at 90%. When stored in warm conditions, root crops begin to sprout quickly, and also quickly wither and deteriorate. Throughout the entire shelf life of beets, it is mandatory to sort out root crops, discarding spoiled or wilted.



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