Eggplants are heat-loving garden crops, but their cultivation in the suburbs has long been mastered, and is characterized by a sufficiently high yield. Of course, in the Moscow region it is recommended to give preference to greenhouse cultivation, but even in open ground, subject to high agricultural technology, the yield will be quite decent.
It’s easiest to grow heat-loving vegetables in a greenhouse, where gardeners have a good opportunity to create for the plant the most favorable conditions for growth, development and fruiting. Equally important is the proper care of the culture.
However, most often failures in growing eggplant in a home gardening environment are associated with the wrong choice of variety and violation of the basic rules of cultivation. In this case, the crop either does not fully ripen or very low indicators of yield and quality of the fruits occur.
The choice of domestic and foreign varieties and hybrids of eggplant today is very large, therefore In order not to get lost in this variety, you should pay attention to the following selection criteria:
Among other things, one should take into account the timing of the ripening of the crop, since, in accordance with the length of the growing season, all varieties and hybrids of this garden crop are divided into:
Preference should be given to varieties and hybrids adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of the Moscow Region with stable fruiting and high productivity. The easiest way to grow low and not requiring competent formation of plants. It should also be remembered that hybrids are highly productive, but need increased attention and proper care at all stages of the growing season.
In the soil and climatic conditions of the Moscow region, getting a high and high-quality eggplant crop is not too difficult. As a rule, this garden crop is planted with seedlings. The best results are obtained when cultivating eggplant in protected ground, but several very promising and productive varieties have been developed for obtaining a high yield on open soil ridges.
|Variety / Hybrid Name||Growing conditions||Sustainability||Fetus||Pulp|
|"Alekseevsky"||Open ground, under film, in the greenhouse||Tobacco and Cucumber Mosaic Viruses||Cylindrical, dark violet, weighing up to 150 g||Dense, white, with a pleasant delicate taste, without bitterness|
|"Joker"||Open ground or greenhouse||To the fall of flowers and VTM||Pear-shaped, bright purple, weighing up to 130 g||White, dense and very tasty|
|"Hippopotamus-F1"||Greenhouse or open ground||Medium to major diseases||Pear-shaped, dark purple, weighing up to 350 g||Medium Density, Greenish White|
|"Sperm whale"||Greenhouse||Tobacco Mosaic Virus||Elongated pear-shaped, purple, weighing up to 0.65 kg||White, of sufficient density, pleasant taste|
|"Marathon Runner"||Open ground||Medium to major diseases||Cylindrical, dark purple, weighing up to 0.55 kg||Whitish staining, no bitterness|
|"Epic-F1"||Greenhouse or open ground||Tobacco Mosaic Virus||Oval-conical, violet-black, weighing up to 235 g||White, relatively dense, tasty|
|"Vicar"||Open ground or greenhouse||To low temperatures||Pear-shaped or shortened pear-shaped, weighing up to 210 g||Good density, light green|
|"Purple"||Open ground||To wilting diseases||Elongated cylindrical, lilac, weighing up to 0.25 kg||Snow-white, good density, without bitterness|
|"Prince"||Open ground, under film, in the greenhouse||TDC and Cucumber Mosaic||Ovoid, black-violet, weighing up to 220 g||Whitish, very tender, pleasant taste|
|Solaris||Open ground, under film, in the greenhouse||To low temperatures||Elongated pear-shaped, purple, weighing no more than 210 g||Thick enough, white, without bitterness|
The site for the cultivation of eggplant must be represented by loose, well-permeable and fertile soil. For cultivation in open ground without the use of shelter, sowing of pre-prepared seed material should be carried out approximately in the second decade of March, which will allow transplanting eggplant seedlings to a permanent place in mid-June. If there is a film shelter on the ridges, the sowing of seeds is carried out in the last decade of February, and seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place in the last days of May.
The best precursor crops for eggplant are represented by onions, cabbage, cucumbers, legumes and winter wheat. It is not recommended to grow this garden crop after harvesting potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers or physalis. It is very important to carry out a high-quality, deep preplant digging of the soil with the introduction of basic fertilizers.
In loamy areas, a pair of buckets of peat and a bucket of humus per square meter are required. Heavy clay soils need to be improved by adding a pair of peat buckets, a humus bucket, a bucket of coarse sand and half a bucket of sawdust per square meter. Light sandy soils can be improved with a pair of humus buckets, a pair of peat buckets and the same amount of clay soil per square meter. When digging sites represented by cultivated peat bogs, it is mandatory to add a bucket of soddy soil and a bucket of humus per square meter.
It is recommended to prepare greenhouse ridges for growing eggplant since the fall, after harvesting previous crops, all plant debris has been removed and soil disinfection has been carried out. Standard greenhouse soil disinfection can be carried out using any of the following methods:
Most often in the conditions of home gardening, the first two methods are used. The composition of greenhouse soil can be different, but the main conditions are a high level of breathability, good ability to retain moisture and the presence of an optimal amount of essential nutrients. As a rule, a standard soil mixture consists of an equal amount of peat, loamy soil, dung humus or compost and a small amount of sawdust with the addition of wood ash and complex mineral fertilizers.
Sowing seeds or planting eggplant seedlings in unheated greenhouses should be done after the temperature of the soil and air has become stable and comfortable for growing a heat-loving crop. Planting is best done with the tape method, adhering to the distance between rows of 60 cm and observing the distance between plants within 45-60 cm.
Proper planting care is a guarantee of a stable and high yield. Throughout the growing season, it is necessary to carefully monitor the indicators of soil moisture, preventing its overmoistening or drying out.
In total, during the growing period, three root dressings of the culture should be carried out, not forgetting to accompany them with watering, cultivating and weeding. It is extremely important to regularly inspect the plants in order to timely detect lesions by diseases or pests and, at the first sign, to use the most effective, modern insect-fungicidal preparations.