Perennial Gaillardia (Gaillárdia) belongs to the genus of plants from the Astrov family. The birthplace of this popular drought tolerant plant is North and South America.
The annual or perennial culture has a densely branching aerial part, the height of which is not more than 50-60 cm. Regardless of the type and variety, perennials form very brightly colored flowerscollected in large simple, semi-double and double inflorescences. Tall varieties must be tied up in a timely manner.
Terry-flowered varieties are represented by low-growing varieties Yellow feather and "Red summer", as well as a spectacular varietal mixture with very original and terry inflorescences "Lorenziana".
G.hybrida - a popular variety in the culture, obtained as a result of work on the crossing of several species, including the beautiful Gaillardia. The height of the aboveground part does not exceed 80 cm. Flowering occurs in the period from June to August. The culture forms simple, semi-double and double terry inflorescences of reddish-yellow-brown staining. The undersized or dwarf variety is especially popular. Primaveraas well as medium Sonne.
G.grandiflóra - blooms in early summer. The diameter of the inflorescences slightly exceeds 10 cm. The varieties with reed flowers of red-yellow color are the most popular in home gardening. "Mandarin" and "Viral Flame"as well as a variety with a dark red center Daser.
G.arista has a straight-stemmed part with dense pubescence, 30-75 cm high. Foliage is oblong, oval or lanceolate, with pubescence, dentate or whole. The basal foliage is petiolate, and the stem is sessile. Single inflorescences, consisting of motley copper-red, yellow and orange reed flowers. All garden forms are united by the common name grandiflora. Tall varieties need to be tied to a support.
Very bright and beautiful garden perennial used to create borders, rabatka, mixborders, as well as suitable for cutting. The height of the plant is 60-70 cm. The stem part is quite long and flexible, with peduncles freely raised above the foliage, which end in large wine-red color with inflorescences-baskets. Necessarily tied to a support.
The dwarf variety "Arizona Sun", which is very popular among domestic amateur gardeners, has stems no more than a quarter meter high. Refers to the species G.hybrid. The main varietal difference is a long and very plentiful flowering, until the onset of significant autumn cooling.
The average height of an ornamental plant of this variety does not exceed 28-30 cm. The flowers are large in size, orange-yellow in color, with a convex orange-red center. The period of mass flowering falls on the period from June to mid-September.
The spinning "Arizona Red-Town" is a very bright and compact form with a height of not more than a quarter meter. Each rosette forms about six to eight peduncles, differing in terracotta colors. Flowering is very longIt begins in mid-summer and lasts until the autumn cooling.
G.pulchella forms sprawling bushes with abundant flowering inflorescences-baskets. Reed petals have a primary yellow coloration. The ends of the petals are purplish pink, and the base is purplish red. Tubular petals have a reddish brown tint. Popular varieties include large-flowered "Picta" and with spherical inflorescences "Lorenziana".
The hybrid form "Burgunder" is a perennial highly decorative and very unpretentious plant, with an aerial part up to 50-60 cm high. The foliage is lanceolate, with slight pubescence. Necessarily tied to a support.
Red Shades - a flowering crop with a bush height of up to 25-30 cm. The flowers resemble large red daisies blooming in June-September. Grade "Cornelian" height not more than 70-75 cm is distinguished by long, flexible, freely raised peduncles with large orange inflorescences-baskets. Necessarily tied to a support.
Gaillardia "Beauty" - grassy garden culture from the Astrov family, with straight shoots curving in the lower part no more than 70-75 cm high. Forms single inflorescences from variegated reed flowers and a yellow-purple center. Necessarily tied to a support. No less popular varieties "Amber" and "Oriental patterns"used in multilevel flower arrangements on flower beds and flower beds.
Proper planting and quality care for the decorative perennial is a guarantee of a long and plentiful flowering. A beautiful flower needs to be planted in areas with good lighting.
When choosing the right place for growing an unpretentious and very decorative perennial culture, The following features must be taken into account:
When planting, you need to correctly determine the optimal layout of plants. The standard distance between the bushes can be approximately 30-35 cm. At the stage of pre-planting soil preparation, it is important to introduce a sufficient amount of organic and mineral fertilizers. As organics, humus or compost with a small amount of wood ash can be used. Such a composition is best applied directly to the landing wells in the amount of one glass.
In order to independently breed very effective and relatively unpretentious gaylardia on your personal plot vegetative or seed method can be used. The first option involves the separation of an already well-grown bush. Such a division of a decorative bush is made in the spring or in the autumn period, immediately after trimming the faded flower stalks.
Quite often, a perennial culture propagates on self-sowing flower beds. However, if necessary, seed material can be collected and seed propagated. For this purpose, several peduncles must be left, and after ripening, collect and dry the seed material well before sowing. Perennial species in one place are able to grow and bloom profusely for about five years. The culture blooms in the year of sowing. In the soil and climatic conditions of the middle zone and more northern regions, it is advisable to use seedling method of cultivation.
Drought-tolerant and unpretentious beautiful-flowering perennial needs moderate irrigation measures, as well as tolerates hot and dry summers quite well. It is necessary to feed a decorative perennial about three times for the entire growing season.
The first time fertilizers are applied at the beginning of the mass budding phase, the second top dressing is performed at the stage of active flowering. The final top dressing is done in the autumn period, after cutting the peduncles, about a month before noticeable frosts. Under decorative bushes, mineral complex fertilizers are introduced, which are intended for feeding flowering garden plants, as well as compost and ripened humus.
Among the main, most common pests of gaillardia are whiteflies and aphids. At the first signs of damage to the aerial parts of the plant by such plant parasites, they are treated with highly effective drugs such as Decis or Akellik.
Gross violations in care technology often lead to gray rot, as well as white rust and spotting. To rid a flowering culture of fungal infections, modern fungicidal agents are used. For this purpose, you can use colloidal sulfur, Hom, Oksikhom, as well as Bordeaux mixture and the well-known drug Topaz. To destroy white rust, it is best to use the drug "Skor".
Regardless of species and varietal characteristics, perennial gailardia belongs to the category of rather frost-resistant garden plants. Nevertheless, if a harsh or lightly snowy winter is expected, it is best to take some measures to protect the decorative culture in open ground. After cutting off all faded peduncles, it is recommended to cover the aerial parts of the bush with fallen leaves, peat or fir spruce branches.
Perennial gaillardia is very harmoniously combined in any floral arrangements on the infield with ordinary garden daisies, large-flowered navyavnik or asparagus. Culture is very loved by landscape designers and is actively used by them:
You can simply decorate the green area or lawns in the house area. For cutting and use in bouquets, it is best to grow tall varieties and hybrid forms.
Before sowing seed material on open-air flower beds, you need to remember that such a decorative crop grows and develops best on light and fairly dry, but nutritious, neutral soils. Too wet or wetlands are not used. You should also protect the gaillardia from fresh manure or too acidic soil.
Seeds are sown on special distribution beds filled with well-moistened soil. It is recommended that the standard distance between the bushes is a quarter meter. Experienced flower growers cultivate the culture in seedlings in individual peat pots, as flower seedlings can hardly tolerate the transplant process.
When sowing, seeds are buried no more than 1 cm to increase germination and germination rate can be surface sowing and the use of a film cover to create a greenhouse effect. After the appearance of a pair of true leaves, if necessary, you can perform thinning shoots. Seedlings should be planted in a permanent place after stable warm weather is established, and the soil on the site will warm enough at a depth of 10-15 cm.
Despite the fact that today about twenty different types of gaillardia are well known, in garden breeding, such highly decorative and unpretentious hybrid forms as Bremen, Burgundy, Tommy and Kobold are most often used. The culture not only easily tolerates some errors in care, but also compares favorably with drought tolerance, as well as lush and prolonged flowering.