Truffle (Tuber) belongs to the class of marsupials and has an underground tuberous fleshy fruit body. Incredibly valuable and recognized in many countries as a delicate mushroom from the order of Pezizales (Pezizales) is quite rare.
Due to their resemblance, other mushrooms are sometimes called truffles, which belong to the genera Choiromyces, Elaphomyces and Terfezia. They look very attractive, many of these mushrooms are edible and are used as an imitation of delicacy. But despite the presence of worthy doubles, out of competition remains a mushroom from the genus Tuber, the most expensive, called the present.
|View name||Latin name||Characteristic||The specific features of the pulp|
|Black Russian Truffle||Tuber aestivum||Underground location of altered apothecia. The form is tuberous or distinctly round, with a diameter of 3.0-10.0 cm. The surface is brownish-black or bluish-black with the presence of black pyramidal warts||Dense consistency with a tendency to friability in adult specimens. The color is whitish or brownish yellow with a marble pattern. The taste is nutty, sweetish, with a pleasant pronounced smell|
|Winter truffle||Tuber brumale||Irregular spherical shape, diameter up to 20.0 cm. Peridium is represented by warts of a polygonal or thyroid type. The outer part changes the color from reddish purple to black||Changes the color from white to grayish-purple with the presence of numerous white and yellowish-brown, marble type veins|
|Italian truffle||Tuber magnatum||Underground fruiting bodies are represented by altered apothecia in the form of irregularly shaped tubers with a diameter of up to 12.0 cm. The surface is velvety, light ocher or brownish.||Dense consistency, whitish or yellow-gray with a red tint and beige-brown marble stains. Cheesy taste with a pleasant spicy aroma|
|Perigord truffle||Tuber melanosporum||The underground fruit body is tuberous, round, irregular in shape, with a diameter of not more than 8.5-9.0 cm. The reddish-brown surface changes color over time to coal-black||Solid texture, light gray or pink-brown staining with white or reddish marble stains. It has a strong characteristic aroma and pleasant taste with bitterness.|
A few species and varieties of truffle grow abroad. However, they are also found in Russia and Ukraine, as well as in Belarus. You can find these mushrooms in deciduous forests.
Tuber aestivum, known in many countries as black truffle, most often grows next to oak plantations, as well as beech, hornbeam or hazel. Most of all, this variety of edible mushrooms is common in Central and Southern Germany, Belgium, France, Italy and Bohemia, as well as Poland. On the territory of Russia, growing areas on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus are known. The Piedmontese truffle is characterized by its proximity to deciduous plants such as birch, poplar, elm, linden, mountain ash and hawthorn. Peak fruiting occurs in the period from summer to early fall.
An interesting fact: the largest white truffle, weighing 1.5 kilograms, was found in the vicinity of Pisa. When selling, its value amounted to 150 thousand euros.
Truffles grow exclusively underground. The average depth of the location of the fruiting body is about 10-20 cm. It is not easy to get a valuable mushroom, and often people who can smell them can help a person search for these mushrooms - a pig or a dog.
With experience in truffle hunting, mushrooms can be found on their own. It is enough to know that they are worth looking for in glades and forest edges with a small amount of grass. They grow in whole "families", so the soil at their location rises, and sometimes crack. Truffles smell strong and specific enough, which often attracts midges swarming over the bodies of fruits hidden in the ground.
Shelf life of fresh product does not exceed three days. However, you can store this delicious mushroom in olive oil or in alcohol.
The energy value of this unique and very expensive mushroom is 100 g:
Mushroom pulp also contains such components necessary for the human body:
The ability of truffles to quickly and effectively cleanse the vascular system and strengthen the heart muscle is highly appreciated. Besides, there is a positive effect of the components contained in the product on the general condition of the skin and nervous system. According to gourmets, the main advantage of mushrooms is their exquisite musky aroma, which allows cooks to create real culinary masterpieces. The calorie content of the pulp does not exceed 27 kcal per 100 g of product.
You must be able to cook truffle dishes correctly, because spoiling such an expensive ingredient will be very disappointing. This mushroom is very well combined with various fruits, as well as ham, veal and cheeses, which allows you to cook delicious and unusual dishes, including packer with foie gras, aspic with foie gras and turkey with truffles, famous in many cuisines of the world. The famous Strasbourg pie also begins with these mushrooms.
It is worth noting that the taste of truffle pulp is self-sufficient and allows you to cook quite simple, but at the same time amazing in taste, dishes.
Ideal for pasta dishes, potatoes, meat, as well as sea and river fish or vegetables.
Ingredients for cooking:
Stir the truffle and butter, shape with a square and let stand in the freezer for several minutes. Stir the garlic, shallots and white wine, and then add pepper and salt, and then boil for 2-3 minutes in a saucepan. Add cream and boil a couple more minutes. Cut the frozen butter into medium-sized cubes and add to the sauce. After dissolving the oil, cool the sauce and add chopped black truffle and chives.
A classic and very popular Croatian dish with mushrooms.
Ingredients for cooking:
Add the egg flour to the sieve and pour in the refined vegetable oil, and then the wine, add a little water and a pinch of salt, then knead a sufficiently thick dough. Roll out a sufficiently thin layer and cut into 5 x 5 cm squares. Connect the opposite corners of the squares and, lowering them into boiling water, boil until cooked. Drain and add butter.
To prepare mushroom sauce, it is necessary to fry the sliced truffle and medium-sized pieces of ham with the addition of butter, basic spices and salt over medium heat. At the final stage, pour a small amount of broth and boil for several minutes. Season with mushrooms sauce, sprinkle with chopped herbs and grated Parmesan.
You can grow truffles at home. Most often, black mushrooms are grown in this way, since the cultivation of ceps is associated with considerable expenditures not only of time and effort, but also of the money needed to purchase special NPK fertilizers.
To create a truffle plantation, you can prepare host trees with an already formed truffle mycorrhiza. In the climatic conditions of our country, you can use oak, hazel, linden or hornbeam.
Experts recommend growing valuable mushroom according to the following technology:
So that the mycelium does not die as a result of overdrying, neat but abundant watering is carried out. Care for partner trees is standard. You can not grow chestnut, willow, poplar or spruce in the immediate vicinity with truffle plantations.
Mushroom picking involves carefully removing them from the ground. It is very important not to damage the mycelium. Subject to the cultivation technology per hectare, you can get about 100-110 kg of mushrooms. Truffle is a very tasty and expensive mushroom that belongs to the elite category, so its cultivation at home is economically justified and very popular.