How to find and make truffles

Truffle (Tuber) belongs to the class of marsupials and has an underground tuberous fleshy fruit body. Incredibly valuable and recognized in many countries as a delicate mushroom from the order of Pezizales (Pezizales) is quite rare.

Description, photo and characteristics of the mushroom

Due to their resemblance, other mushrooms are sometimes called truffles, which belong to the genera Choiromyces, Elaphomyces and Terfezia. They look very attractive, many of these mushrooms are edible and are used as an imitation of delicacy. But despite the presence of worthy doubles, out of competition remains a mushroom from the genus Tuber, the most expensive, called the present.

View nameLatin nameCharacteristicThe specific features of the pulp
Black Russian TruffleTuber aestivumUnderground location of altered apothecia. The form is tuberous or distinctly round, with a diameter of 3.0-10.0 cm. The surface is brownish-black or bluish-black with the presence of black pyramidal wartsDense consistency with a tendency to friability in adult specimens. The color is whitish or brownish yellow with a marble pattern. The taste is nutty, sweetish, with a pleasant pronounced smell
Winter truffleTuber brumaleIrregular spherical shape, diameter up to 20.0 cm. Peridium is represented by warts of a polygonal or thyroid type. The outer part changes the color from reddish purple to blackChanges the color from white to grayish-purple with the presence of numerous white and yellowish-brown, marble type veins
Italian truffleTuber magnatumUnderground fruiting bodies are represented by altered apothecia in the form of irregularly shaped tubers with a diameter of up to 12.0 cm. The surface is velvety, light ocher or brownish.Dense consistency, whitish or yellow-gray with a red tint and beige-brown marble stains. Cheesy taste with a pleasant spicy aroma
Perigord truffleTuber melanosporumThe underground fruit body is tuberous, round, irregular in shape, with a diameter of not more than 8.5-9.0 cm. The reddish-brown surface changes color over time to coal-blackSolid texture, light gray or pink-brown staining with white or reddish marble stains. It has a strong characteristic aroma and pleasant taste with bitterness.

Where to grow in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus

A few species and varieties of truffle grow abroad. However, they are also found in Russia and Ukraine, as well as in Belarus. You can find these mushrooms in deciduous forests.

Tuber aestivum, known in many countries as black truffle, most often grows next to oak plantations, as well as beech, hornbeam or hazel. Most of all, this variety of edible mushrooms is common in Central and Southern Germany, Belgium, France, Italy and Bohemia, as well as Poland. On the territory of Russia, growing areas on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus are known. The Piedmontese truffle is characterized by its proximity to deciduous plants such as birch, poplar, elm, linden, mountain ash and hawthorn. Peak fruiting occurs in the period from summer to early fall.

An interesting fact: the largest white truffle, weighing 1.5 kilograms, was found in the vicinity of Pisa. When selling, its value amounted to 150 thousand euros.

How to search

Truffles grow exclusively underground. The average depth of the location of the fruiting body is about 10-20 cm. It is not easy to get a valuable mushroom, and often people who can smell them can help a person search for these mushrooms - a pig or a dog.

With experience in truffle hunting, mushrooms can be found on their own. It is enough to know that they are worth looking for in glades and forest edges with a small amount of grass. They grow in whole "families", so the soil at their location rises, and sometimes crack. Truffles smell strong and specific enough, which often attracts midges swarming over the bodies of fruits hidden in the ground.

Shelf life of fresh product does not exceed three days. However, you can store this delicious mushroom in olive oil or in alcohol.

Useful properties and nutritional value

The energy value of this unique and very expensive mushroom is 100 g:

  • proteins not more than 3.0 g or about 12 kcal;
  • fats not more than 0.5 g or about 5 kcal;
  • carbohydrates not more than 2.0 g or about 8 kcal;
  • ash about 1.0 g;
  • dietary fiber about 1.0 g.

Mushroom pulp also contains such components necessary for the human body:

  • Vitamin PP - 9.4 mg;
  • vitamin C - 6 mg;
  • Vitamin B2 - 0.4 mg;
  • Vitamin B1 - 0.02 mg.

Black Truffle: Search Features

The ability of truffles to quickly and effectively cleanse the vascular system and strengthen the heart muscle is highly appreciated. Besides, there is a positive effect of the components contained in the product on the general condition of the skin and nervous system. According to gourmets, the main advantage of mushrooms is their exquisite musky aroma, which allows cooks to create real culinary masterpieces. The calorie content of the pulp does not exceed 27 kcal per 100 g of product.

Cooking features

You must be able to cook truffle dishes correctly, because spoiling such an expensive ingredient will be very disappointing. This mushroom is very well combined with various fruits, as well as ham, veal and cheeses, which allows you to cook delicious and unusual dishes, including packer with foie gras, aspic with foie gras and turkey with truffles, famous in many cuisines of the world. The famous Strasbourg pie also begins with these mushrooms.

It is worth noting that the taste of truffle pulp is self-sufficient and allows you to cook quite simple, but at the same time amazing in taste, dishes.

Truffle sauce

Ideal for pasta dishes, potatoes, meat, as well as sea and river fish or vegetables.

Ingredients for cooking:

  • medium sized black truffle;
  • a quarter cup of white truffle oil;
  • ½ cup fat cream;
  • a glass of white wine;
  • a teaspoon of chopped garlic;
  • a tablespoon of chopped shallots;
  • 0.2 kg of butter;
  • a pinch of white pepper;
  • chives;
  • salt to taste.

Stir the truffle and butter, shape with a square and let stand in the freezer for several minutes. Stir the garlic, shallots and white wine, and then add pepper and salt, and then boil for 2-3 minutes in a saucepan. Add cream and boil a couple more minutes. Cut the frozen butter into medium-sized cubes and add to the sauce. After dissolving the oil, cool the sauce and add chopped black truffle and chives.

Istrian Truffles

A classic and very popular Croatian dish with mushrooms.

Ingredients for cooking:

  • 0.35 g flour;
  • a tablespoon of refined vegetable oil;
  • a pair of eggs;
  • a couple of tablespoons of white wine;
  • salt;
  • 0.1 kg of truffles;
  • 0.1 kg of dried or smoked ham;
  • 0.1 kg of parmesan;
  • butter;
  • fresh greens;
  • salt and spices.

Add the egg flour to the sieve and pour in the refined vegetable oil, and then the wine, add a little water and a pinch of salt, then knead a sufficiently thick dough. Roll out a sufficiently thin layer and cut into 5 x 5 cm squares. Connect the opposite corners of the squares and, lowering them into boiling water, boil until cooked. Drain and add butter.

To prepare mushroom sauce, it is necessary to fry the sliced ​​truffle and medium-sized pieces of ham with the addition of butter, basic spices and salt over medium heat. At the final stage, pour a small amount of broth and boil for several minutes. Season with mushrooms sauce, sprinkle with chopped herbs and grated Parmesan.

Growing at home

You can grow truffles at home. Most often, black mushrooms are grown in this way, since the cultivation of ceps is associated with considerable expenditures not only of time and effort, but also of the money needed to purchase special NPK fertilizers.

To create a truffle plantation, you can prepare host trees with an already formed truffle mycorrhiza. In the climatic conditions of our country, you can use oak, hazel, linden or hornbeam.

Experts recommend growing valuable mushroom according to the following technology:

  • infect the growths of hazel, stone oak with mycelium;
  • seedlings appearing after two weeks should be quarantined with sterile conditions;
  • Mycorrhiza should be planted in landing pits slightly moistened with water;
  • it is recommended to deepen by 60-70 cm, which will reliably protect the truffle from adverse external influences;
  • the topsoil should be covered with straw or fallen oak foliage.

So that the mycelium does not die as a result of overdrying, neat but abundant watering is carried out. Care for partner trees is standard. You can not grow chestnut, willow, poplar or spruce in the immediate vicinity with truffle plantations.

How to Make Truffle Omelette

Mushroom picking involves carefully removing them from the ground. It is very important not to damage the mycelium. Subject to the cultivation technology per hectare, you can get about 100-110 kg of mushrooms. Truffle is a very tasty and expensive mushroom that belongs to the elite category, so its cultivation at home is economically justified and very popular.

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