Florists love dahlias, planting and grooming in the spring of which require a lot of time and attention. These flowers belong to the Astrov family. Dahlias are a thermophilic perennial plant. For them, the temperature is below +20 C is critical, so tubers need to be dug up and stored for the winter until the next planting season. In cold climates, the plant is considered annual.
Dahlia is planted in spring. Planting material goes on sale in late February, it is important to hurry with the purchase, as the dahlia is popular among flower growers, and new varieties are quickly being sold out.
In order to guarantee dahlia sprouting, make sure that the planting material is healthy:
Rotten, having soft parts of tubers, discard dry rhizomes.
Dahlia tubers offered for sale may have several buds. This makes it possible to increase the amount of planting material. They must be divided into parts. The division is carried out to increase the number of planting units and increase the area of the rhizome, which improves the nutrition of future shoots. When a plant receives proper nutrition, the quantity and quality of inflorescences improves.
There are delenki on sale - parts of the rhizome that have 1-2 kidneys and the root neck - the place where the stem goes to the root.
It is more reliable to propagate dahlias with tubers in the spring. We carefully inspect the purchased material, remove dry broken, too thin parts, garbage. When dividing tubers, a dahlia for germination leaves one kidney and the root neck (or part of it). Dahlia tubers are divided with a sharp knife. Slices are dusted with ash, activated carbon, cinnamon or brilliant green.
When the preparation of the tubers is completed, sign them so as not to forget the names of the varieties. Germination is started in April.
Let's consider in detail how to carry out germination of dahlias and planting dahlias in the ground in spring.
We plant the tuber in a pot filled with a moistened substrate. When planting tubers for sprouting dahlias, the root neck cannot be deepened. It must remain on the surface of the earth. Leaving consists in regular watering after planting. Germination will give a good result if you use suitable soil mixtures:
For germination, it is optimal to use a composition of coconut fiber. It consists of chopped coconut shells. The raw materials are pressed to produce briquettes the size of a building brick. Before planting a dahlia in the spring, the block is soaked in water for several hours, you get 8 liters of coco soil. Coconut substrate is environmentally friendly and sterile, does not contain harmful bacteria, is an ideal breeding ground for germination, it retains moisture well.
When dahlias sprouted, and this occurs within 2-3 weeks after planting, it is necessary to determine their readiness for cuttings. This possibility occurs when the sprout reaches a height of 10-15 cm. Several internodes will appear on them. Cut the cuttings, stimulating the awakening of the following sleeping kidneys. The newly formed sprouts are again cut with a sharp knife (scissors) before the first internode. By implementing this method, up to 30 cuttings can be produced.
The rooted cuttings are placed in the bottom water or planted in a coconut substrate or other soil mixture. Pre-treatment of the slice with a growth stimulator is required.
Growth stimulator - synthesized phytohormone. The most famous means: Epin, Kornevin and others. Epin will help the plant get out of stress after planting, accelerate tuberization, and increase immunity to diseases.
Cuttings of dahlias planted in a pot must be covered with a film. It’s easy to build a cuticle with your own hands: make a wooden frame of such a size that a box with seedlings (cuttings) fits inside, pull a film on top, which will be supported by a bent thick wire.
Ready cuttings are produced industrially, sold in garden centers.
After root formation, transplant into pots before planting in the ground. The growth of shoots is stopped by pinching over the fourth pair of leaves.
This method of propagation is intended for growing undersized dahlia varieties or for breeding new varieties (breeding work).
Seeds are planted in March. The required air temperature should not be lower than 230ºС. After germination of dahlia and the formation of pairs of real leaves, seedlings dive into separate containers. Leaving consists in watering. Planting dahlias in the ground is carried out in late May - early June.
How to prepare the place for landing? The flower prefers sunny areas, at least 6 hours, the plant should be in the sun, tolerates slight shading. Strong wind protection required.
Before planting dahlias, you need to evaluate the quality of the soil. Plants prefer soil:
You can not plant dahlias in low places. Excessive acidity of the soil is neutralized by adding ash or lime (mixed with the ground). If the earth has an alkaline reaction, then peat is added. Clay soil is too dense; to increase air permeability, peat, sand and leaf humus need to be added.
They begin landing in early June, when there is no threat of frost.
If germination gives a good result, then dahlias should be planted in small holes. If the soil is poor, make rotted manure, ash, compost, carefully mix with the ground. When planting dahlias, their tubers are buried by 8-15 cm.
Plants are susceptible to diseases: viral mosaic, powdery mildew, bacterial cancer, gray rot. To make them less sick, it is necessary to change the place of cultivation every year. The plant can return to the place previously used after 3 years, crop rotation is required. You can not plant dahlias in the beds where asters grew. They are related cultures and are prone to similar diseases, especially fungal diseases. If the land is small, then to reduce the incidence of the need to update the soil introduced into the holes before planting.
Most varieties of dahlias are tall, so a strong peg 1.3-1.5 meters high is driven into the hole. Plants are tied to it gradually, as they grow. This eliminates the risk that plants will break due to strong winds or rain. If the stem is broken, the plant can be saved. To do this, an even stick is fixed to the stem. Dahlias are not a moody culture, but minimal care is needed.
For prolonged flowering and obtaining large inflorescences, the lower side shoots are removed.
This is a necessary component of care. Stepsons are cut out before buds appear.
Low-growing varieties (Gallery Art Deco, Gallery Bellini, etc.) are planted in the foreground of flower beds, borders, grown in containers. Dahlias spring 2016 are presented in the catalogs of manufacturers (Virage, Vesta, Jean More and others). Most dahlias are tall (Ringo, Crazy Love, etc.), have non-decorative leaves, so they are placed in the background of flower beds. Bright annual plants are planted in the foreground: petunias, snapdragon, lobelia, etc. The middle plan is filled with phlox, daylilies, goldenrod.