Vaccination is a vegetative way of propagating pears by combining parts from several crops and is often used in home gardening. As a rule, such an event is held in the spring in order to propagate fruit trees and berry bushes. A tree grown from a grafted plant is able to preserve all the qualitative characteristics of the mother plant.
A correctly and timely grafted pear allows you to solve several problems at once in the conditions of home gardening:
To plant a plant is not too difficult. The main conditions are the need for strict adherence to the timing of the event and the implementation of the vaccination procedure, step by step following the established technology. As a rule, gardeners plant a pear in the spring.
The most common in home gardening were the spring and summer vaccinations for different types of stocks. This procedure is carried out before or at the very beginning of the period of active sap flow, in dry and fairly sunny weather. Some gardeners practice summer vaccination, which is carried out in the first ten days of July.
The vaccination process involves the implantation of a kidney or a cuttings in the stem part or branch of another fruit plant. Any implantable components are called "graft". The plant directly vaccinated with is a stock. Most often vaccinated on rowan or pear. Less popular is the vaccine for hawthorn or quince. Spring pear vaccination technology is standard regardless of the type of stock.
When choosing the type of stock, it is necessary to take into account some botanical features of fruit plants:
When choosing a stock, it should be remembered that vaccinations of pears on varietal mountain ash very often fail. Among Russian amateur gardeners, it is widely believed that the best stock for a garden pear is the wild Ussuri pear. However, according to the observations of experienced gardeners, it is best to use cultivated pear seedlings or cotoneaster as a stock. It is allowed to use red mountain ash with a pear skeleton former with high winter hardiness.
Winter-hardy stock is recommended to grow to a height of one and a half meters, after which less-hardy, but better grades can be grafted onto the top of the crown. Such a vaccination can significantly increase not only winter hardiness, but also the durability of the scion.
To carry out an event for grafting fruit crops, it is necessary to use only a clean and maximally sharp instrument. Previously, you should prepare a garden knife, a saw, a garden pruner, rolled polyethylene, a tape for a winding, as well as a garden var. To speed up the healing process, it is recommended to add heteroauxin to the garden var, at the rate of 1 table. per 1 kg of var.
Currently, gardeners apply several methods of vaccination, including the use of cuttings and buds. Copying the cuttings can be simple or improved, as well as a method in the cleft and under the bark. The choice of the method of vaccination should be based on indicators of the thickness of the scion and stock.
The implementation of a simple copying is to cut the scion and rootstock with approximately the same thickness indicators, after which they are applied to each other and wrapped around the grafting site with several layers of electrical tape; conducting improved copulation involves the implementation of a slice with a protrusion, which allows the scion and stock to more fully and quickly grow together in the vaccination area.
Most often, amateur gardeners vaccinate the pear in a split. For this purpose, it is necessary to cut the rootstock into a stump, and then use a hatchet to make a splitting in the wood. Before using the hatchet, it is recommended to cut the bark with a sharp knife in the area of the future splitting, which will make the vaccination more convenient.
In this case, cuttings for scion are cut to a wedge and inserted into a cleft made on a stock. The pear grafts should be installed so that the edges of the bark on the scion and stock are in close contact. After the procedure, the cleavage is covered with garden varnish, and then tightly fixed with an insulating tape.
The quality indicators of the fusion of the site of vaccination depend on the proper contact of the bark and cambium, through which all the substances necessary for nutrition, growth and development enter the plant. That is why cambial layers on the stock and scion must necessarily coincide. It is recommended to vaccinate on one stock of several varieties of the same maturity.
The simplest method is considered to be a vaccination in the split. Such an event is carried out extremely quickly and shows the highest percentage of survival. Experienced gardeners recommend using cuttings with three or four well-formed buds for grafting.
Re-grafting pears is carried out in two years. In the first year, it is necessary to cut the branches going up. At this stage, it is easier to vaccinate in annual wood. In the second year, annual shoots are growing, growing up. As a rule, "tops" with loose wood are not recommended to be vaccinated. With a strong growth of vaccination, pinching is carried out.
After vaccination or re-grafting, plant care consists of a mandatory inspection after two weeks. The vaccine has taken root if the kidney turns green. In the last decade of autumn, it is allowed to remove the harness. It is very important to carry out regular watering of fruit stands, loosening the soil in the near-stem circle. The overgrowth that appears below the vaccination site is wild, therefore it is recommended to carry out its systematic removal.