Cow lip mushroom (Mullein): characteristics and features of preparation


One of the most common lamellar fungi, the cow lip or mullein, is known to many mushroom pickers as the thin sow (Paxillus involutus). Mullein belongs to the pig family and only thirty-five years ago was recognized as poisonous.

Description and characteristic

The description of the fungus, which, in addition to the official Paxillus involutus, has such popular names as cow tongue, pork, pork, barnacle, saloch, dunk and barn, as follows:

  • the diameter of the cap of an adult mushroom most often varies between 10-12 cm, but some specimens have caps with a diameter of 15-18 cm;
  • a meaty type hat;
  • in young fruiting bodies, the hat has a slightly convex shape and wrapped felt edges;
  • adult fruiting bodies have a flat, funnel-depressed or funnel-shaped hat;
  • the edges of the cap can be lowered, flabby, ribbed, straight or wavy;
  • for young specimens, olive-brown or olive-brownish coloring of the cap is characteristic;

  • adult mushrooms have a grayish-brown or brown dyeing hat, darkening when cut or pressed;
  • bonnet surface dry, with fibrous pubescence;
  • mushroom pulp is dense, but soft, with age acquires a characteristic friability;
  • in the dry period, the worminess of the pulp and legs is observed;
  • characteristic lack of pronounced mushroom aroma and taste;
  • rather short leg of a continuous type with a matte and smooth surface of ocher-olive or dirty yellow color.

Finding whole groups of thin pigs is most often possible in wet and shady areas. Sometimes fruiting bodies grow on a tree trunk. The massive fruiting period falls on the period from the beginning of summer to a steady autumn cooling.

Cow Lip Mushroom: Description

In the forest of our country in natural conditions grows only two species belonging to the Svinushkov family.

Benefit and harm

Cowshed mushrooms can cause significant harm to human life and health, which is due to the content of lectin toxins in the pulp, which are not destroyed even during repeated boiling.

Of course, like most mushrooms, pigs have some useful properties, among which should be noted:

  • high content of lecithin in the pulp - a substance that does not allow harmful cholesterol to accumulate in the human body;
  • low calorie content, which is only 30 kcal for every 100 g of pulp of the fruiting body;
  • the average fat content in the pulp of the fungus does not exceed 28.2%;
  • simple and easily digestible carbohydrates by the human body account for only 16.9%;
  • the average content of protein components is about 58.9%;
  • numerous studies have proved the antioxidant activity of mushroom pulp, as well as high fiber content.

The chemical composition of the pulp of the fruiting bodies of Paxillus involutus:

  • Vitamin A - 0.001 mg per 100 g;
  • vitamin C - 7 mg;
  • thiamine - 0.1 mg;
  • riboflavin - 0.4 mg;
  • pantothenic acid - 2.1 mg;
  • pyridoxine - 0.05 mg;
  • folates - 0.03 mg;
  • niacin - 4.8 mg;
  • Vitamin PP - 5.6 mg;
  • potassium - 530 mg;
  • calcium - 4 mg;

  • magnesium - 15 mg;
  • sodium - 6 mg;
  • phosphorus - 115 mg;
  • chlorine - 25 mg;
  • iron - 0.32 mg;
  • cobalt - 0.15 mg;
  • molybdenum - 0.0034 mg;
  • fluorine - 0.14 mg;
  • chromium - 0.1326 mg;
  • zinc - 0.282 mg.

Despite the fact that, it would seem, based on the composition of the pulp, the use of the mushroom is obvious, the pigs are not edible or conditionally edible mushrooms and their use in food can result in death or cause severe damage to the functions of internal organs. Mullein flesh contains very dangerous toxins and a toxic substance called muscarine and often causes severe diseases of the circulatory system and blood formation organs.

Also, the fruiting bodies of this species of fungi accumulate in very large quantities of salt and compounds of heavy metals hazardous to human health. The first, most rapidly developing gastrointestinal symptoms of poisoning by pigs are vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, which is accompanied by a decrease in the volume of circulating blood.

How to cook

Many mushroom pickers are still not ready to refuse to eat pigs, so before preparing dishes from this mushroom, a number of measures are carried out aimed at removing toxins and dangerous compounds from fruiting bodies.

It is very important to thoroughly clean the sows from forest debris and repeatedly wash them under running water. Then pure mushrooms must be soaked in salted cold water for at least five to six hours, changing the water three times. After soaking, the mushrooms should be boiled three times, draining the broth and immersing the mushrooms in clean water. The average time for each boil should be approximately 25-35 minutes. Properly boiled mushrooms sink to the bottom of the cooking container.

From boiled mushrooms, you can cook both the first and a variety of second courses, and it is also allowed to use them for home canning for the winter period.

How to cook pickled mushrooms

Where and when to collect

You can collect pigs or pigs throughout the summer and the first decade of autumn. These mushrooms are in large groups. Pigs are widespread in our country quite widely, so they can be found almost everywhere. Paxillus involutus prefers to grow in fairly moist deciduous and coniferous forest zones. A favorite place for growth is forest edges or glades surrounding swampy areas.

It must be remembered that categorically it is impossible to collect fruiting bodies along the route and in close proximity to large industrial complexes. Also, you can not use in the preparation of dishes old, highly overgrown and wormy mushrooms. Pigs are not subject to long-term storage, therefore, the harvested fruit bodies should be processed as quickly as possible.



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